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All Orthopaedic Conditions

Amniotic band syndrome

Amniotic band syndrome (congenital constriction band syndrome) is a condition that occurs when a fetus becomes entangled in the fibrous, string-like amniotic bands from the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the baby during pregnancy. Because the baby continues to grow and the bands do not, they restrict blood flow and disrupt normal growth and development. The restriction of blood flow can cause congenital deformities to the arms, face, fingers, legs or toes. Treatment of amniotic band syndrome may include surgery, occupational or physical therapy, or the use of a custom prosthesis.

Anterior cruciate ligament/ACL tear

Anterior cruciate ligament/ACL tear is an increasingly common sports injury that may lead to instability and pain in the knee. Treatment is often through surgical reconstruction, with a variety of management options based on the age of the patient, followed by rehabilitation.


Arthrogryposis is a rare congenital disorder characterized by multiple joint contractures (stiff joints), which can include weakness and fibrosis. Treatment may include physical and occupational therapy, splints or casts. Surgery may be necessary to improve joint function.

Blount’s disease/bow legs (tibia vara)

Blount’s disease/bow legs (tibia vara) is a rare growth disorder of the tibia (shin bone) that causes the lower leg to angle inward, resembling a bowleg. Treatment for Blount’s disease may include bracing or surgery.

Bone lesions (non-cancerous)

Bone lesions (non-cancerous) are abnormal growths or tumors found in the bone. Surgery may be a necessary form of treatment if the tumor enlarges or affects function.

Brachial plexus injury (Erb’s Palsy)

Brachial plexus injury (Erb’s Palsy) is paralysis or injury to the nerves located in the neck/shoulder area that control the muscles of the arm that usually occurs during birth. If these nerves are damaged during the birth process, there may be a loss of movement or weakness of the arm. The physician and occupational therapist will perform a thorough assessment to determine the best treatment plan. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the injury. Severe injuries or torn nerves require microsurgery to reconnect the nerves within the first year of life. Less severe injuries require range of motion exercises and occupational therapy. Periodic evaluations are important to assess progress. Insufficient recovery requires secondary surgery that may include joint release, tendon transfer or osteotomy.


Brachycephaly is a condition in which the back of the head becomes flattened, causing the head to widen, and occasionally the forehead bulges out. Treatments may involve use of a helmet, headband or therapy.

Brittle Bone Disease – Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Commonly referred to as brittle bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, permanent genetic disorder that prevents the building of strong bones. Children with the disorder have bones that break easily and they may have deformed bones. OI can also result in fragile teeth, spine curvatures, hearing loss and weak muscles. Shriners Hospitals for Children is on the leading edge of OI research and actively working towards innovative treatment options to help children with OI.

Osteogenesis imperfecta affects somewhere between 25,000 and 50,000 people in the U.S. It's linked to a number of health challenges and is known for causing low bone density and fragile bones. Scraped knees go hand-in-hand with childhood, but children with OI are at significantly higher risk for breaking bones. OI symptoms and secondary, related conditions can impact growth, development, learning, self-esteem and confidence. Shriners Hospitals for Children delivers compassionate, family-centered care aligned with each individual child's physical, emotional and psychological health care needs.


Bunions are an abnormal enlargement of the joint of the great toe. Bunions may be treated by taping or splinting of the foot, padded shoe inserts, anti-inflammatory medication or cortisone injection. Surgery may be necessary if conservative treatment does not work.

Cavovarus foot

Cavovarus foot refers to a foot that has both cavus (high arch) and varus of the heel (a heel that is turned inward.) It leads to stress on the lateral foot, often ankle instability or peroneal pathology and occasionally even fractures to the lateral bones of the foot and ankle. Treatment often involves physical therapy, orthotic devices and sometimes surgery.

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